Winter injury is the single most limiting factor to grape production in the Northern United States. In New Jersey, 85% of vineyards reported winter injury following the harsh winters of 2013–14 and 2014–15. Extreme cold, widely fluctuating temperatures and late freezes can all cause direct injury to grape buds, trunk and stem tissues. Such injury creates opportunities for infection and development of crown gall disease, caused by Agrobacterium vitis. Crown galls typically form on trunks and graft unions, restricting water and nutrient movement from the roots to the canopy, often resulting in vine decline or death.