Fact Sheet FS117
Composting involves primarily the microbial decomposition of organic matter. Compost - the end product - is a dark, friable, partially decomposed substance similar to natural organic matter found in the soil. The organic matter content of soils is very important. It influences the physical condition, water-holding capacity, and temperature of the soil, and especially the soil bacterial processes which affect the availability of mineral salts to plants.
Why Compost Leaves
If newly fallen leaves are added directly to the soil without first being composted, the microbes that decompose the leaves compete with growing plants for soil nitrogen. The temporary nitrogen shortage caused by the microbes can reduce plant growth. To reduce or eliminate this competition for nitrogen, composting of the leaves is recommended prior to incorporating them into soils.
Need for Organic Matter
Most New Jersey soils need an increase of ½ to 1% in organic matter. Sandy soils, such as loamy sands and sands, and soils with very high clay content are improved the most by an increase in organic matter content.
Benefits of Adding Leaf Compost to Soil
Among the benefits derived from adding leaf compost to New Jersey soils are:
Overall, compost improves the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils. Leaf compost, however, is not normally considered a fertilizer as it is too low in nutrient content. It serves primarily as an organic amendment and a soil conditioner. The nitrogen content of composted leaves on a dry basis is about ½ to 1% by weight. For other materials commonly added to backyard leaf compost piles, the nitrogen content is: blood meal 10-14%; grass clippings 2-4%; coffee grounds 1 ½-2%; eggshells 1-2%; horse manure 1-5%; cow manure 1-1 ½%; poultry manure 3-5%; ammonium sulfate 20 ½%; urea 45%; bone meal 1 ½-4%; and cotton seed meal 6-7%.
When Compost is Ready to Use
When compost is ready to use (6 to 18 months after starting) its temperature will generally have decreased to slightly above air temperature. Finished compost will usually be drier than leaves during composting. The material also will be crumbly in texture. Before using compost, "screening" may be necessary to remove the larger partially decomposed materials. These materials will sometimes be present in composting piles because not all items decompose at the same rate. The undecomposed organic matter clumps may be broken up and added to another active compost pile for additional decomposition.
Adding Leaf Compost to the Soil
A good rate of organic matter to work into the top 6 ½ to 7 inches of most New Jersey cultivated soils is 0.5 to 1.0% organic matter by weight. This is equivalent to adding 900 to 1,800 wet pounds (25 to 50 bushels) of leaf compost per 1,000 square feet of area. To accomplish this, spread a 3/8- to ¾-inch depth of leaf compost uniformly over the soil surface and mix into the top 6 to 8 inches of soil.
Little or no nitrogen will be released from compost for plant use during the season immediately following incorporation into the soil. It is generally necessary to add nitrogen to soils containing compost to prevent the compost from "robbing" the soil of nitrogen and creating deficiency problems in plants grown in the soil. Adding 1 to 1 ½ lbs. of 10% nitrogen fertilizer to each 100 lbs. (about 3 bushels) of leaf compost is recommended.
The preceding recommendations supply only the needs of the leaf compost. Most plants require an additional 1 to 3 lbs. of actual nitrogen per 1,000 square feet for normal feeding. This nitrogen should be applied to the soil in addition to that applied in the leaf compost.
Using Leaf Compost as a Mulch
Leaf compost can also be used as an organic mulch on the surface of soil in place of peatmoss, straw, etc. Organic mulches are valuable because they:
Recommended thicknesses of mulch layers: 2-3 inches for deciduous shrubs and trees, vegetables, and rosebeds; 3 inches for flower beds; and 3-4 inches for shallow-rooted, acid-loving plants.
Other Uses for Leaf Compost
Leaf compost may also be used in potting soil. However, no more than 25 to 30% of the potting soil should be leaf compost. Frequently leaf compost will continue to decompose. If more that 25 to 30% of the potting soil is leaf compost, there will be a significant volume reduction of the potting soil after 1 year.
Composting generally destroys most weed seeds contained in the compost material; however, not all of them will be destroyed. Some are heat resistant, and others will not be fully exposed to the high temperatures. If a completely pasteurized leaf compost is desired for potting soil, it will be necessary to heat it in an oven until the temperature of the center of the mass reaches 180° F and is maintained for 30 minutes.
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